Mexico City /
Researchers from the United States study the development of a vaccine what could work universally against canceras it induces a “coordinated attack” by diverse populations of T cells.
Cancer vaccines face the challenge of achieve results in different environmentssince each type of disease has different effects and faces a different immune system.
“Most cancer vaccines target peptide antigens, which requires customization due to the great inter-individual diversity in the molecules of the complex.”
Specialists of the Harvard University They are working on a solution that allows finding a mechanism common to different carcinogenic diseases.
Tumors often escape T cell-mediated immunity, since in some cases become “invisible” to the immune systemand the polyvalent vaccine would seek
The “invisibility” is related to the damage that cancer produces in the DNA. Under normal conditions, there are cells that alert the immune system to harmful formations, but the cancer manages to cut and dilute them, which means that the body’s defenses cannot detect them.
“We developed a conceptually new cancer vaccine that targets an immune escape mechanism from the tumor. The vaccine targets the stress proteins MICA and MICB (MICA/B) that are upregulated in response to DNA damage in many types of human cancers, but that healthy cells express at low or undetectable levels,” says the study published in the journal Nature.
Thus, the study is focused on a polyvalent vaccine that could prevent tumors from “escaping” and, instead, increase the presentation of antigens tumorous.
The bioengineers indicated that the vaccine can generate antibodies against the MICA and MICB proteins. The developed molecule binds to damaged cells and prevents their cutting.
By allowing tumors to become visible, the immune system detect formations and two types of cells begin their work: T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.
The vaccine has been tested in mice and has shown encouraging results. Furthermore, adequate immune responses have been observed in primates. Thus, the researchers plan to start trials next year.
Thus, the most outstanding feature of the vaccine is that counteracts one of the most common mechanisms of invisibility between different types of tumors before the immune system.
“The main message is that it is possible to develop vaccines that work in many patients and in different tumor types,” said the specialist. Kai W. Wucherpfennig of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.