Experts argue that the main mechanism is the inflammatory process. It is observed in 85% of cases.
“My son coughs all night, many nights, several times a year”; “the girl is unreasonably excited, whistling is heard when breathing”; “The teachers tell me that he sits down during recess, that he doesn’t play with his classmates because he immediately gets short of breath.” These statements by parents may or may not apply to asthma symptoms, but in the face of viruses and respiratory infections, it’s important to distinguish between cases of asthma because it’s a chronic condition that needs to be treated differently and requires training and skills. medical activities.
Although asthma is a respiratory disease that can appear at any age, it is more common in children (it affects more than 10%) and in people with a personal or family history of allergies. Its manifestations vary from person to person and can change from person to person. the same patient throughout his life, but is characterized by symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, feeling of a closed or squeezed chest, wheezing in the chest.
“Like many other chronic diseases, asthma cannot be cured, but optimal control can be achieved. People with asthma can lead normal lives, so it is always important to have an adequate diagnosis that takes into account the origin of asthma, the precipitating factors and severity of the condition, as well as adherence to treatment,” explained Dr. Jorge. Maspero, Allergy and Clinical Immunology Specialist at the Cidea Foundation, in a statement from the institution.
1. Symptoms and severity of episodes: it is necessary to establish the method of their occurrence, both at the beginning and in development, duration, intensity, hourly variability and regularity (permanent or seasonal); frequency, attendance on duty, hospitalizations, need for and response to medications.
“One of the main objectives of the treatment of bronchial asthma, especially in severe cases, is the prevention of exacerbations, conditions that require medical attention, often urgent,” said the pediatric pulmonologist. Veronica Dzhubergiafrom Garrahan Hospital.
2. Development of the disease: This is due to age of onset, progressive or not, previous and current diagnoses and treatments.
“The diagnosis is mostly clinical and confirmed by spirometry,” explained Dr. Jubergia. Determining the severity of asthma in each patient is critical. Long-term follow-up of children with asthma between the ages of 7 and 10 years seems to confirm that the severity of their condition persists over time: those who develop severe asthma in early school age tend to have severe asthma in adulthood. age. .
3. Triggering or aggravating factors: it is necessary to establish whether episodes are associated with respiratory infections, exposure to environmental allergens (mites, animal epithelium, fungal spores or pollen) or environmental pollutants (tobacco smoke or other pollutants), association with environmental changes (travel, other place of residence), emotional factors (crying, laughing), food and supplements, medications (aspirin), gastroesophageal reflux, and factors such as cold air, exercise, or weather changes. It is also relevant if the dwelling is urban or rural, house or apartment; geographic location and heating. Description of the bedroom (type of mattress, pillows, rugs, soft toys, books). Pets and family smoking.
4. Influence of disease: The pathology can cause difficulties for the patient, such as absenteeism from school, unwillingness to participate in games and sports, disturbances in sleep, development, growth and behavior, as well as affect the family with changes in daily routine, loss of work time and economic costs. That’s why it’s also important to understand what periods without seizures are like, whether you also have symptoms, exercise tolerance, occasional or frequent need for medication, etc.
5. Training: Involving the family and the patient in informing about the disease, its chronic course, establishing and monitoring an asthma control plan, together with a healthcare professional, which also includes the proper prescription of medications, is key. advice on how to act in a crisis situation.
“Those children who cannot control their disease with conventional therapies will be at risk for more crises, hospitalization and repeated courses of systemic corticosteroids, the sum of which can pose long-term health risks,” the specialist said. . . .