What happened in Argentina and the world?

International Day of Non-Violence Against Women. The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women is commemorated annually on November 25 to denounce the violence that is exercised against women throughout the world and demand policies in all countries for its eradication.

Argentine Hotel and Gastronomy Day. On November 25, 1941, the Gastronomic Hotel Business Federation of the Argentine Republic (FEHGRA) was officially constituted, representing the hotel sector, which is why this date is celebrated.

Merchant Marine Day. This date is commemorated as the day of the creation of the National Nautical School “Manuel Belgrano”, a component unit of the General Directorate of Education of the Argentine Navy.

Karl Benz was born in 1844. Karl Friedrich Benz, better known as Karl Benz or Carl Benz, was a German engineer and inventor, known for having created the Benz Patent-Motorwagen in 1886, considered to be the first vehicle in history designed to be powered by an internal combustion engine .

In 1885 Nicolás Avellaneda died. He was an Argentine lawyer, journalist, politician and statesman; Minister of Justice and Public Instruction between 1868 and 1873, national senator for Tucumán. In 1874 he was elected president by the National Autonomist Party, of which he was the founder, a political force that would remain in power for 42 years without alternation. In 1882 he was again a national senator for his native province, until his death.

In 1915 Augusto Pinochet was born. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte, was a Chilean military and dictator in the period between 1973 and 1990. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Army on August 23, 1973 by President Salvador Allende, replacing Carlos Prats. On September 11 of the same year, he led a coup that overthrew the democratic government. From that moment, Pinochet ruled the country, first as president of the Military Junta of Government, to which was added the title of supreme head of the Nation on June 27, 1974. On December 16 he assumed as president of the Republic, position that was ratified after a questioned plebiscite and the promulgation of a new Constitution in 1980. His mandate ended with a plebiscite held in 1988, after which he was replaced, after elections by Patricio Aylwin in 1990. He remained as commander-in-chief of the Army until 1998 and assumed as senator for life, a position he held for a couple of months. Under the influence of the so-called “Chicago Boys”, free market-oriented economists, he implemented economic liberalization. It eliminated tariff protections for local industry, banned unions, and privatized social security and state-owned companies. These policies produced an initial economic growth, which Milton Friedman called the “miracle of Chile”, although it is indicated that the social gap widened, with said country being one of the most unequal. During the dictatorship, serious and various human rights violations were committed. He was arrested under an international warrant when visiting London in 1998 for human rights violations. He was released for health reasons and returned to Chile on March 3, 2000. During his stay in England, the former Prime Minister, Margaret Tatcher, visited him and thanked him for collaborating with his government in the United Kingdom in the Malvinas war. In 2004, Chilean judge Juan Guzmán Tapia ruled that he was medically fit to face trial and placed him under house arrest. At the time of Pinochet’s death under house arrest, on December 10, 2006 in Chile, 300 criminal charges were still pending for numerous human rights violations during his 17-year term, in addition to cases of tax evasion and embezzlement. during and after that period. He was also accused of having corruptly amassed at least $ 28 million.

In 1936, the Argentine Carlos Saavedra Lamas was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. He was an Argentine lawyer, diplomat and politician, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1936, being the first Latin American to obtain this distinction. He was the great-grandson of Cornelio Saavedra, president of the First Governing Board of the United Provinces of Río de la Plata established in 1810. He was a deputy and Minister of Justice and Public Instruction (1915) and Foreign Relations (1932-1938), during the Presidency of Agustín Pedro Justo. As Minister of Foreign Affairs, he presided over the Chaco Peace Conference in which Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay and the United States participated, reaching an armistice agreement on June 12, 1935 that ended the Chaco War (1932- 1935). In 1936, at age 58, he won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in favor of peace in general, but in particular for having inspired the Saavedra Lamas anti-war Pact, which was signed by 21 nations and which became a international legal instrument. In addition, the brilliant role as a mediator to end the Chaco war that faced Paraguay and Bolivia, it was Saavedra Lamas who called the Buenos Aires Peace Conference to stop the conflict. He was president of the XI International Labor Conference, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1928, of the Pan-American Conference of 1936 and of the Assembly of the League of Nations in 1936. He was rector of the University of Buenos Aires between 1941 and 1943 and professor until 1946. He presided over the National Academy of Law and Social Sciences of Buenos Aires. He died on May 5, 1959 in Buenos Aires at the age of 80.

In 1975 Suriname, former Dutch Guiana, declared itself independent. The independence of the Netherlands was formally declared. That same day the Congress met, appointing the previous governor, Johan Ferrier and Henck Arron as prime minister. After independence, Suriname experienced a migration of at least a third of the population who retained their Dutch nationality to the old metropolis.

In 1984 Uruguay held elections after 11 years of dictatorship. The general elections in Uruguay for the period 1985-1990 were on Sunday, November 25. They marked a historic moment: the end of the dictatorship and the return of democracy. Although they were colored by the existence of political prisoners (the white leader Wilson Ferreira Aldunate was imprisoned in the Trinidad barracks) and outlaws (such as the Frente Amplio leader Liber Seregni). The elections were supervised by the Electoral Court (directed by its inspector Nicolás Storace Arrosa), the results were considered crystal clear and the people anointed the winning candidate, the Colorado Julio María Sanguinetti. Sanguinetti took office on March 1, 1985, replacing the previous incumbent Rafael Addiego Bruno.

In 2016 Fidel Castro died. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz, was a lawyer, graduated in diplomatic law, doctor in civil law and a Cuban revolutionary. After overthrowing the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista thanks to a guerrilla war, he was president of his country for half a century. During his tenure, the largest of the Antilles became a socialist state, under the command of the Communist Party, the only one on the island since it came to power after the revolution, when nationalizations and expropriations were carried out. In 2011 he left his post as the country’s leader and transferred all powers to his brother Raúl Castro. He had started in public life after the assault on the Moncada barracks in 1953, for which he was taken to prison. After being pardoned due to pressure from public opinion, he went into exile in Mexico. In that country, he planned the guerrilla invasion of 1956, among others, together with the Argentine Ernesto Guevara de Serna, who would later be known as “Che”, also forming part of the new government. Initially it established good relations with the United States; and later, it strengthened ties with the Soviet Union. After a series of expropriations from US multinationals, the disagreements with the neighboring country led to the economic embargo on the Cuban government, which continues to this day. The relationship with the USA was antagonistic, especially after the Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961. Fidel Castro, garnered global support, as well as rejections, even after his death in 2016, at the age of 90. Among those who maintained close relationships with him are renowned figures, including Americans, such as actors Jack Nicholson, Danny Glover, Leonardo DiCaprio, Robert Redford, filmmakers Steven Spielberg and Oliver Stone. or athletes, like Diego Armando Maradona, who had Castro’s face tattooed on his left leg. He was a great friend of the Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, the French President, François Mitterrand, and the American writer Ernest Hemingway. It was also the case of Nelson Mandela, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King, Nikita Khrushchev, Salvador Allende, or Juan Pablo II, among others. Among his great friends were the Nobel Prize Winner for Literature Gabriel García Márquez, and the former Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez.

In 2020 Diego Armando Maradona died. The death of Diego Maradona, considered the best footballer of all time, was on November 25, 2020 in Dique Luján, province of Buenos Aires, the reason for his death being, according to the preliminary autopsy report, chronic heart failure exacerbated, with dilated cardiomyopathy, which led to pulmonary edema, which produced a sudden death while sleeping. His funeral took place at the Casa Rosada, the seat of the Argentine government, receiving the honors of the state funeral and being buried on November 26 in a private cemetery in Bella Vista, where his parents are also. President Alberto Fernández declared three days of national mourning, and the funeral took place the following day, but it was interrupted, which led to riots between the Police of the City of Buenos Aires and those who were struggling to enter the Government House and their surroundings. The funeral, although short, was compared to the massive funerals of Carlos Gardel or Eva Perón. Both national and international honors were paid to the funeral, such as in Naples (Italy), where the stadium was renamed with his name, in Manchester (United Kingdom), Mexico City, and others around the world. In football matches around the world, such as the Champions League and the Copa Libertadores (among others), a minute of silence was held, and even in remote places such as East Timor, tributes were paid to his figure. Presidents and former presidents also offered condolences for his death, such as the President of France Emmanuel Macron, the President of Mexico Andrés Manuel López Obrador, the President of Ireland Michael D. Higgins, the former President of Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, the former President of Bolivia Evo Morales, Liberia’s president and former soccer player George Weah, and soccer players Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo, Pope Francis sent a rosary to his family. At the funeral, the coffin was wrapped with the Argentine national flag and three shirts with the number 10 (Argentinos Juniors, Boca Juniors and that of the Argentine team). In different cities of the world it was remembered who was considered a true virtuoso and owner of a personality that aroused passions and resentments. In one of the stadiums in England, the second goal for the national team was played on the giant screens in Mexico; a tower in China was illuminated with his figure, and the best Rugby team in the world, the All Blacks, deposited a black jacket with the number 10 on his back in recognition of his figure, in a match against Los Pumas. One of the images that will remain as an emblem of its international projection was that of a street artist in Syria, painting his figure on the walls demolished by the bombings. All the international media echoed the news, which in the midst of the pandemic, shook the world.

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